Special Topics in Calamity Physics
This theory now extends the realistic model of digital electrons by adding an explicit measurement model of how our macro instruments interfere with nature's micro-systems when such attempts result in human-scale information. The focus here is on the connection between the micro-world when left to itself and our mental models of this sphere of material reality, via the mechanism of atomic measurements.
The mathematics of quantum mechanics reflects the eigenvalues of the combined target system PLUS equipment used for measurement together. Therefore, QM has constructed a theory that inseparably conflates the ontological and epistemological views of nature. This standard approach fails to examine isolated target systems alone. It is metaphysically deficient. In contrast, the present theory builds on the physical reality of micro-states of single atoms, where in the case of hydrogen , a single electron executes a series of fixed segments corresponding to the micro-states across the atom between a finite number of discrete interactions between the electron and one of the positrons in the nucleus.
The set of temporal segments form closed trajectories with real temporal periods, contra to Heisenberg's 'papal' decree banning such reality because of his need to measure position and momentum at all times; even though instantaneous momentum is never measured. Determinism - the philosophical belief of the irresponsible and incorrectly assumed to be a Fact of Nature, when it is really needed for most mathematical models of Reality. Philosophy of Science. A short essay to demonstrate that contrary to orthodoxy and modern educational practices physics has always been constructed on a metaphysical basis; particularly in the foundational area of ontology.
A plea is made to restore this A plea is made to restore this vital foundation to kick-start the stalled area of theoretical physics. The long-standing problems in quantum mechanics QM have deep roots in western science. Resolving these problems is not restricted to revisions in theoretical physics but requires major changes in how intellectuals have viewed reality Resolving these problems is not restricted to revisions in theoretical physics but requires major changes in how intellectuals have viewed reality for over years. As such, these revisions will be vigorously resisted.
Everyone soon observes that all matter and structure eventually decays, included our own bodies. The Greek intellectual solution to this fate was to reject matter as well as the common material pursuits of most men and also to retreat further into their imaginations. A major thinker leading this view was the Pre-Socratic philosopher, Democritus, who proposed along with his mentor, Leucippus that the world consisted only of extremely tiny units of non-divisible matter, called atoms. Surprisingly, this unrealistic response generated a huge explosion in creative thought with the production of a new body of symbolic ideas now called mathematics and a coherent set of concepts known as Platonism.
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Both new areas shared the common rejection of the idea of time. The rejection of time in mathematics first resulted in the science called geometry, which studies the deep but timeless relationships involving space. Plato was most impressed with this science and was personally convinced of the ultimate validity of Pythagoreanism: the proposition that the world could be fully described by the timeless symbols and rules of mathematics.
Even though by Plato's own time, the Pythagorean ideal had been shown to be deeply flawed; for example ironically by the irrational length of the hypotenuse of a unit square, Plato still insisted that the study of mathematics would be a necessary core of his educational curriculum at his Academy.
This obsession has persisted throughout the history of western education, putting mathematics at the center of learning, leaving mathematics, in the eyes of most educated people, as " The Queen of the Sciences ".
Indeed, the geometric 'proof' is still viewed as the ideal for all kinds of rational discourse. There was also a hidden theological dimension to all this rational thinking.
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Long-term observations of the night sky led to the appealing idea that The Heavens were infinite in extent. This idea of the infinite has had a seductive charm over experts in mathematics from the most ancient times. In particular, the geometric study of continuous curves led to the dangerous idea that a finite line segment consisted of an infinite number of points. This potent seed was to lie dormant for nearly years before it re-emerged as the core of modern mathematics: analytic calculus. Most ideas generate their own reaction. In this case, Plato was to be contradicted by his star pupil: Aristotle, who remained largely skeptical of mathematics and even more so of the deeper retreat from reality into idealism.
Aristotle was personally grounded in his broad studies of human behavior and living systems and so must be considered the father of the sciences of psychology and biology.
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Indeed, even today, biology is the most active area of science that still avoids extensive use of mathematics. Much of Aristotle's many writings were lost for a thousand years, allowing Platonism to plant its roots deep into the western psyche; especially one already obsessed with an other-worldly religion.
Plato's ideas were preserved by their merger with Christianity into a philosophy called Neo-Platonism. This analysis of flawed western languages demonstrates that they all suffer from poor assumptions made by the Old Greeks when they invented philosophy by omitting subjectivity and relationships. An algebraic representation of natural languages that clearly emphasizes the semantic information underlying the superficial syntactical forms. This new mathematical representation is viewed as universally unambiguous across all natural This new mathematical representation is viewed as universally unambiguous across all natural languages.
This approach provides a unique linear representation of declarative statements describing truthful occurrences of the real world. Based on an explicit ontology of reality, the representation is focussed on the role of verbs describing relationships and activities in space and time. This verbist analysis is constructed on the two principal concepts of reality — corresponding to the verbs to be and to have.
Semantic 'markers' or operators are introduced to make clear the explicit roles of the other parts of speech. This new representation directly results in semantic formulas which are able to respond accurately to all types of questions concerning the recorded declarative syntactic statements, including qualitative, quantitative and 'vague' comparisons. Since this representation is linear, it is suitable for computer analysis, including the processing of set and logical operations.
An extended group of set and class operators allows the semantic formulas to be manipulated as a form of GROUP algebra. In clear contrast to earlier predicate and logical forms, this representation is readily able to map tenses, 'fuzzy' quantifiers, homonyms, etc. The use of a 'definitional' or lambda operator enables this simple representation to be both extensible and recursive. A semantic calculus is introduced which systematically transforms maps complex syntactic declarations into well-formed semantic formula and vice-versa.
These methods are used to demonstrate translations between several natural languages while preserving the semantic content at all stages. This sixth report on a new research programme that is investigating the electromagnetic EM interaction. This paper analyzes the effects of interactions arising This paper analyzes the effects of interactions arising from multiple, remote electrons on one or several, local 'target' electrons. These interactions are the result of the new quantized form of the EM impulse introduced in the previous paper.
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This model is used to re-interpret various optical effects that have previously required the existence of a fundamental object known as 'LIGHT': a basic entity, considered to be either a particle or a wave or even both? In contrast, this new EM model is constructed upon the key role of the 'light' emission processes, categorized as either oscillatory as in antenna or transitory as within atoms. These real emission processes are now integrated into the asynchronous action-at-a-distance model of the EM interaction that is the basis of this new theory. Mathematically, this new model describes algebraically how variable or periodic phenomena that have been assumed require the use of waves can be explained by periodic, asynchronous, remote interactions between point particles without any use of differential equations including the wave equation.
This paper now extends the earlier pair-wise interaction between two electrons into the many-body world of macroscopic reality. The two key ideas of interaction saturation and selection are now introduced, which totally differentiate this theory from all other theories constructed around universal, continuous interaction or 'force' models. By eliminating all the ray, wave and photon models of 'light' this paper now extends the original Newtonian mechanical philosophy of nature to the major domain of optics: both classical and quantum.
The emphasis is on the electrons and on the relationship between electrons and not on some hypothetical 'carrier' that travels between them — this is the Newtonian action-at-a-distance particulate model extended to multiple times.
The idea of selection leads to the introduction of information waves that identify the location and velocities of all other electrons that might participate in a ray-like exchange of momentum between pairs of electrons saturation that always act like particles real trajectories across space. These supra-luminal waves do not carry momentum but ensure that the interaction minimizes the exchange of action across a non-local region of space. This new model resolves the long-time paradox of electrons as waves or particles: electrons are seen here as real point particles that interact periodically rather than continuously together; the focus is on the relationship between them that can be described by the discrete mathematics of particles or the periodic mathematics usually associated with waves.
This paper includes the first analytical solution to the 3D scattering of two electrons — in the center-of-mass frame of reference both electrons are shown to go in quantized spiraling, conical motions: towards each other and then away from each other. The present theory provides an alternative to Feynman's mathematical approach to " the mysterious properties of light " while providing a physical explanation for some of the calculational diagrams introduced by Feynman in his approach to quantum electrodynamics QED.
This now replaces all field theories of 'light' without introducing the concept of the photon or virtual particles and so eliminates all QED infinities in the physical properties associated with the interactions of electrons arising from the false idea of vacuum polarization, returning the vacuum to its Newtonian role as the passive, empty space between real particles.
This new EM theory establishes a firm foundation for a new quantum theory that covers all scales of nature from the macroscopic to the heart of the atomic nucleus, while covering the complete range of interaction sets from a pair of electrons to the myriads of electrons existing in macroscopic objects. The next companion paper will explain the wave-like properties of electrons while providing a new, comprehensive theory of quantum measurement. This next paper will finally establish the critical link between the realistic model of the micro-world introduced so far and the macroscopic world of scientific measurements.
This paper completes the replacement of Classical Physics at the macro level with its final analysis without quantization by completing the analysis of This paper completes the replacement of Classical Physics at the macro level with its final analysis without quantization by completing the analysis of the interaction between two electrons described in the two previous papers.
Each of these electron papers imposed a new, discrete restriction on the EM interaction. This is the fifth report on a new research programme investigating the fundamental electromagnetic EM interaction.